Research interests

Find here an overview about our main research topics




How can we feel what others are feeling? Empathy is a fundamental social skill that may act as a social glue, allowing us to communicate and to cooperate more efficiently with others. While generally considered a prosocial emotion that fosters ethical and moral social behavior, recent accounts highlight that it may also be exploited to manipulate others and to increase one’s own benefits at the others’ expense.

At the SCAN-Unit, we are trying to unravel the neural and psychological underpinnings of empathy. We have made pioneering contributions in this domain, such as by showing that empathy for pain activates similar areas as experiencing pain oneself. More recently, we have substantially expanded these findings. Using a novel methodological approach that combines behavioral measures, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, and electroencephalography, we demonstrated that placebo analgesia not only lowers pain experienced in the self, but also empathy for pain. In a series of follow-up studies, we are currently testing the specificity and generalizability of these findings.




Comparative Social Affect and Cognition

Of dog, raven and man. Humans are sometimes characterized as a “particularly social” species. We live in very large social groups and communities, and this might be so because we are equipped with advanced socio-cognitive skills. While some scholars claim that these skills are unique, other accounts suggest that we are certainly not the only animal species that excels in terms of social cognition and behavior.


At the SCAN-Unit, we have thus embarked on a new research journey that uses behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging research in two species well-known for their advanced socio-cognitive and -affective skills. These are common ravens (Corvus corax), a large-brained bird species famed for their social intelligence, and dogs (Canis familiaris), a domesticated species sharing its social environment with humans in most Western societies. These studies are performed in close collaboration with our colleagues from Cognitive Biology, and the Messerli Research Institute.


Brain, Mind, and Body

The brain has been labeled as one of the most complex systems in our universe. Our aim is to substantially advance our insight into this complexity by investigating how the brain enables the advanced social behaviors humans (and other animals) are capable of.

In this respect, we consider it fundamental to target the phenomena we are interested in using a wide array of methods – ranging from genetics to behavioral investigations “in the wild” (the field).The SCAN-Unit thus uses a wide range of research methods, and attempts to combine them to generate converging evidence. Since the brain does not act in isolation from other organs, relying on brain imaging alone won’t help us solve the puzzle. We thus also incorporate measurements of bodily responses, or experimentally manipulate these responses – e.g. by inducing stress in order to measure how this affects empathy and prosocial behavior.